Common testing procedures include amniocentesis, ultrasonography including nuchal translucency ultrasound, serum biomarker testing, or genetic screening.In some cases, the tests are administered to determine if the fetus will be aborted, though physicians and patients also find it useful to diagnose high-risk pregnancies early so that delivery can be scheduled in a tertiary care hospital where the baby can receive appropriate care.Diagnostic prenatal testing can be performed by invasive or non-invasive methods.
Screening can also be used for prenatal sex discernment.
Transvaginal ultrasonography, or endovaginal ultrasonography, can be used to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy by 24 days post ovulation or 38 days after the last menstrual period (about 1 week earlier than transabdominal ultrasonography).
An empty uterus on endovaginal ultrasonographic images in patients with a serum β-HCG level greater than the discriminatory cut-off value is an ectopic pregnancy until proved otherwise.
induction, the predictors of a successful induction (i.e., an induction that leads to a vaginal delivery), the role of antenatal surveillance, and the risk of failed induction followed by cesarean delivery.
Delivery beyond 42 weeks' gestation increases the maternal complications of postpartum hemorrhage, dystocia, and maternal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis and endometritis).